Generalised System of Preferences (GSP)
GSP is a non-contractual instrument by which industrialized (developed) countries unilaterally and based on non-reciprocity extend tariff concessions to developing countries. Following countries extend tariff preferences under their GSP Scheme: (i) United States of America (ii) New Zealand (iii) Belarus (iv) European Union (v) Japan (vi) Russia (vii) Canada (viii) Norway (ix) Australia (only to LDCs) and (x) Switzerland GSP schemes of these countries detail sectors / products and tariff lines under which benefits are available, including conditions and procedures governing benefits. These schemes are renewed and modified from time to time. Normally Customs of GSP offering countries require information in Form ‘A’ (prescribed for GSP Rules Of Origin) duly filled by exporters of beneficiary countries and certified by authorised agencies. List of agencies authorised to issue GSP CoO is given in Appendix-2 C.
Duty Free Tariff Preference (DFTP) Scheme for LDCs:
The mandate for Duty Free Quota Free (DFQF) access to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) came from Paragraph 47 of the Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration of December 2005. India became the first developing country to extend this facility to LDCs through its Duty Free Tariff Preference (DFTP) Scheme for LDCs which came into effect in August, 2008 with tariff reductions spread over five years. The Scheme provided preferential market access on tariff lines that comprise 92.5% of global exports of all LDCs.
Subsequently in 2014, the Scheme was modified both with reference to increase in coverage as well as its simplification. This was in response to requests from several LDCs for additional product coverage on lines of of their export interest and simplification of the Rules of Origin procedures. Under the new expanded DFTP Scheme, India is granting duty free access on 96.4% of the total tariff lines, thereby retaining only about 3.6% of lines in the Exclusion and Positive Lists. Customs’ Notification No.8/2014 dated 1st April, 2014 may also be referred to in this regard.